You know all those New Year resolutions that you have already broken? I fully intended to post this at least a week ago. Ah well, better late than never…
This post is intended to introduce people to the habit of skywatching, and once the habit is ingrained, to be sure that you will never walk outside, day or night, without at least a glance over your head. Not a bad habit to gain. Each month throughout the year (there go those resolutions again!) I intend to post a similar update for your information, and repost the background information as well. Since I am so late in the month of January, I am posting information here for February, too. I haven’t assumed any optical aid beyond a good pair of binoculars. There is plenty to see even without them.
WHAT IS INCLUDED IN EACH MONTH’S INFORMATION
Moon Phases: Full moon nights are good mostly for reading—outside by the light of the moon, or inside with a good reading lamp. They aren’t much good for sky gazing since the brightness of the moon pretty much overwhelms everything else in the sky. Nights with a new moon are dark, and that allows you to see dimmer objects that might otherwise escape your notice. Between the new and full phases, the moon waxes as more and more of its visible surface is illuminated, and it rises ever later. When it is full, it rises at sunset and sets at sunrise, visible all night long. Between the full and the new phases, it wanes, and if you confine your sky gazing to the early evening before midnight, it may not rise until well after you are done.
But the moon itself is a fascinating object, the closest and most easily observed extraterrestrial object. It especially comes into sharper view with binoculars. Look at the moon when it is less than half illuminated, and look along the line separating the illuminated surface from the dark. There the Sun is low in the lunar sky and casts long shadows that throw the deep craters and the tall mountains into higher relief. See if you can spot a bright central peak poking into the sunshine from the dark floor of a deep crater. The best online lunar map I have found is here.
Planets: I’ve confined myself to the five planets that are visible to the naked eye: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. For views of Earth, look down.
Meteor Showers: I haven’t tried to include every single one of these, only the ones that might be worth your while to stay up for. The moon phase greatly affects how many meteors you will see; the ideal situation is when a shower occurs during a new moon. The radiant is the point from which the meteors appear to originate; the showers are named for the constellation in which the radiant appears. This is an optical illusion in the same way that railroad tracks appear to meet in the distance; the meteors actually follow parallel paths as illustrated below:
Deep Sky: There are only a few objects beyond the solar system that are visible to the naked eye (other than stars, of course). Even there you need a pretty dark sky. Binoculars will help, and I’ve included some of the more easily spotted objects.